Big Five Personality Traits Model: A Deep Dive into the Five-Factor Model of Personality

What is Personality?

Personality is a complex and multi-faceted concept that encompasses the unique patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that define an individual’s character.

Various factors shape these characteristics, including genetic predispositions, environmental influences, and personal experiences.

Key Takeaways:

  • Personality is a complex concept encompassing unique thoughts, feelings, and behaviors shaped by genetic predispositions, environmental influences, and personal experiences.
  • Understanding the big five personality traits can provide valuable insights into individual differences in behavior and preferences.
  • The Big Five Personality Traits – extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism – offer insight into how individuals may react in certain situations or perform professionally. Recognizing these distinctions aids in fostering stronger relationships while allowing for improved communication and increased empathy toward others.
Big Five Personality Traits Model

Key Takeaways:

  • Personality is a complex concept encompassing unique thoughts, feelings, and behaviors shaped by genetic predispositions, environmental influences, and personal experiences.
  • Understanding the big five personality traits can provide valuable insights into individual differences in behavior and preferences.
  • The Big Five Personality Traits – extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism – offer insight into how individuals may react in certain situations or perform professionally. Recognizing these distinctions aids in fostering stronger relationships while allowing for improved communication and increased empathy toward others.

Why is Understanding Personality Important?

Understanding personality is crucial for various reasons, as it provides valuable insights into individual differences and human behavior. By comprehending the unique traits that make up a person’s character, we can better predict how they react in certain situations, interact with others, and perform professionally.

In addition to this, understanding personality can also play an essential role when it comes to personal growth and self-awareness. For example, knowing one’s own strengths and weaknesses allows individuals to leverage their innate talents while working on areas needing improvement.

Similarly, acknowledging the intricacies of another person’s character can lead to more effective collaboration and teamwork within diverse environments.

What is The Big 5 Personality Theory?

big 5 traits

The Big Five Personality Traits, also known as the Five-Factor Model of Personality is a theory of personality that helps us understand human behavior across five broad dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. 

Researchers have found that these five traits offer valuable insights into an individual’s character by measuring their propensity for specific behaviors related to work performance, relationships, mental health issues, and academic success – among many others.

What is the History Of The Big Five Model?

The Big Five Model of personality traits has its roots in lexical research that began over 100 years ago. It is based on the assumption that if something is essential to our lives, we will have a word for it in our language.

In the mid-20th century, several researchers began using factor analysis to identify common clusters of personality traits in language data sets.

In the 1980s and 1990s, however, five factors emerged again and again as being consistent across cultures and languages: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (or Emotional Stability).

Psychologists embraced this model because it was comprehensive enough to capture most individual differences while remaining relatively simple and straightforward.

The Big 2: Plasticity, Stability, and the Brain

The Big 5 Personality Traits model stems from two main factors: Plasticity and Stability. 

Plasticity includes traits such as Extroversion and Openness. Both traits reflect a person’s willingness to experience new people and ideas and gain energy from those experiences. 

Plasticity is related to the dopamine cycle in the brain. When an extrovert or a person High in Openness engages in corresponding behaviors, they get energy in the form of dopamine release. 

Meanwhile, Stability includes Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness.

Stability is associated with well-being since it can protect an individual from stressors. It is related to the serotonin cycle in the brain. When a person high in these traits engages them through their behavior, they get rewarded with a serotonin release.

What are the Big Five Personality Traits?

Each of the Big Five Personality Traits sits on a spectrum. Scores on each of these dimensions can vary on a sliding scale from very high to very low and everywhere in between.

Here is the Big 5 Spectrum: 

  • Extraversion to Ambiversion to Introversion
  • Agreeableness to Disagreeable
  • High Openness to Low Openness
  • High Conscientiousness to Low Conscientiousness
  • Emotional Stability to Neuroticism &

This means that the model can capture the differences between two extroverts. As a result, there is a lot of granularity and accuracy within the model, which can help us answer precise questions and make very accurate predictions.

Now this makes the Big 5 Model truly useful and unique. 

Most other personality models, like the MBTI or Enneagram, put people into distinct categories called ‘types.’ The downside of categorizing and sorting people into types is that accuracy, consistency, and predictability are lost. For example, if Ambivert answered one question differently, they could be placed into a complete personality type.

Now, what about all of the people who are somewhere in the middle on two or even three traits? This is the drawback of Typology. People who are not at the extremes of these traits can fit into many different types just by answering a few questions differently. 

Now let’s look at each of these traits, how they perceive the world, what motivates them, and their respective life outcomes. 

Five-Factor Model of Personality

Openness To Experience

Openness is one of The Big Five Personality Traits that measures a person’s interest in aesthetic and sensory information. Individuals with high levels of Openness are imaginative, curious, and open-minded and enjoy trying new things.

Research suggests that this Openness to Experience is the most heritable among The Big Five Personality Traits and can also be developed through experience to become more open to new experiences.

For instance, people who travel extensively or take on challenging projects may develop greater Openness as they encounter unfamiliar situations.

High Openness Vs. Low Openness

  • High Openness: Individuals with high Openness are curious, imaginative, and open-minded. They enjoy novelty and are more receptive to new ideas and experiences.
  • Low Openness: Those with low Openness tend to be more conventional, practical, and resistant to change. They often prefer routine and familiarity over new and unexplored experiences.

How do they Perceive the World?

  • High Openness People see the world as a complete set of relationships that can intermingle, change, evolve, and change. They experience the color of life and paradox.
  • Low Openness individuals see the world in simple, concrete terms, like a black and white painting. There is a groundedness to their experience, things are clearly defined, and they are less likely to get lost in a fantasy.

How are they perceived by others?

  • People with high Openness are often perceived as creative, artistic, and intellectually curious. They may be seen as more adventurous and willing to explore new ideas.
  • Individuals with low Openness are often perceived as pragmatic, down-to-earth, and traditional. They may be seen as more conservative and content with the status quo.

What are their Motivations?

  • High Openness people are driven by curiosity, novelty, and intellectual stimulation. They seek to expand their horizons and constantly learn. 
  • Low Openness individuals prefer stability, predictability, and familiarity. They appreciate a well-structured environment and avoid risks.

What are their Behavioral Manifestations?

  • High-openness individuals are more likely to engage in creative pursuits, embrace change, and participate in a wide variety of activities and interests.
  • Low openness individuals tend to focus on a narrower range of hobbies and interests, adhere to routines, and may be resistant to new ideas or experiences.

How does this Impact their Life?

  • High Openness can lead to greater creativity, personal growth, and adaptability. However, it may also result in a lack of focus or difficulty settling into a specific career or life path.
  • Low Openness can lead to stability and consistency in a chosen career and lifestyle. However, it may also limit opportunities for personal growth, exploration, and innovation.


Conscientiousness is one of the five fundamental personality traits in the Big Five model, which reflects responsibility, organization, and hard work. Conscientious people are typically reliable and self-disciplined individuals who thrive with structure and routine.

They tend to be goal-oriented and have a strong sense of duty towards themselves and others. High Conscientiousness is a good predictor of long-term life success, especially in academic attainment.

For example, students with high levels of Conscientiousness are more likely to achieve higher grades than those who score lower on this trait.

High Conscientiousness Vs. Low Conscientiousness

  • High Conscientiousness is characterized by being diligent, organized, responsible, and goal-oriented. 
  • Low Conscientiousness involves being more spontaneous, flexible, and less focused on rules and structure.

How do they Perceive the World? 

  • High-consciousness people perceive the world through a veil of order. For example, when they enter a new environment, they are the most likely to notice if things are well organized, neat, clean, and tidy or if things are out of place. This applies to physical objects as well as mental concepts. 
  • Low Consciousness people are less likely to notice a mess or be bothered by it. They are more laid-back, spontaneous, unstructured, and can go with the flow. As a result, it is easier for them to see the big picture and change their plans.

What Motivates them?

  • High Conscientious people are driven by a desire for achievement, organization, and responsibility. They like to achieve their goals by following tried and true methods, maintaining order, and adhering to standards.
  • Low Conscientiousness people are motivated by variety, new experiences, and freedom from constraints. They are more open to solving problems in new and unconventional ways.

How do they Behave?

  • High Conscientiousness can manifest as being detail-oriented, punctual, and consistently following through on commitments.
  • Low Conscientiousness often leads to multitasking, procrastination, and a preference for unstructured environments.

What are their Life Outcomes?

  • High Conscientiousness is associated with greater academic and career success, as well as better physical and mental health.
  • Low Conscientiousness may result in lower levels of achievement but can also contribute to increased adaptability and resilience in changing circumstances.


Extroversion is one of the five major personality traits identified in the Big Five model. It describes a person’s level of sociability, assertiveness, and emotional expressiveness.

Someone who scores high on extraversion might be outgoing, talkative, and confident in social situations, whereas someone who scores low may prefer solitude or quiet activities over socializing.

For example, an extroverted person would enjoy being the life of the party and meeting new people, whereas an introverted person would prefer to read a book or watch a movie at home instead.

Understanding where one falls on the extraversion spectrum can help them determine how to best interact with others as well as what type of work environment is most suitable for their personality type.

Extraversion vs. Introversion

  • Extroverts‘ attention is outwardly focused on people, activities, and the world. They are more story-driven.
  • Introverts‘ attention is more internally focused on their thoughts, feelings, and internal state, and they are more self-reflective than extroverts.

How do Extroverts and Introverts Perceive the World?

  • Extroverts perceive the world through a social lens, and they derive energy from being around other people
  • Introverts perceive social situations as exhausting and potentially overwhelming. 

What are Extrovert’s and Introvert’s Main Motivations?

  • Extraverts’ primary motivation is often social interaction and connection with others. They are extraordinary at dividing and prioritizing their attention in social environments. Essentially, they are great social multi-taskers.
  • Introverts prefer to limit the focus of their attention to a single activity or person. They are poor at multitasking; however, they are great at focusing and going deeper.

How do they Behave?

  • Extroverts tend to be outgoing and sociable and enjoy being the center of attention. Extroverts get energy in the form of a dopamine release when they engage in social and extroverted behaviors such as socializing, going on adventures, having new experiences, traveling, and meeting new people.
  • Introverts, on the other hand, do not get a dopamine boost. Instead, socializing is taxing and depleting. As a result, they prefer to talk one-on-one or in small groups and focus their attention internally. 

What are their Life Outcomes?

  • Extroverts tend to have higher self-esteem, enjoy life more, and tend to be more social and have more friends. On the negative side, they are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, like gambling, since they tend to discount the future for the present.
  • Introverts tend to live quiet, more reflective lives with deeper connections and friendships.


Agreeableness is one of the five personality traits in the Big 5 model, and it refers to the tendency for individuals to display kindness, warmth, and optimism towards human nature.

People who score high in Agreeableness tend to avoid conflict and prioritize harmony in their relationships with others.

Individuals who score low on Agreeableness may be perceived as aloof or hostile toward others. Low scores in this trait can lead to a lack of concern for other people’s feelings or a disregard for social norms.

In terms of career choices, individuals with high levels of Agreeableness may excel as teachers or healthcare professionals because they exhibit empathy towards patients or students.

Agreeableness Vs. Disagreeableness

  • Agreeable people prioritize relationship harmony and prefer to avoid conflicts.
  • Disagreeable people prioritize themselves and tend to be competitive, assertive, and more self-interested in social situations. 

How are they Perceived?

  • Agreeable people are generally viewed as cooperative, empathetic, and polite.
  • Disagreeable people seem more selfish or self-centered.

How do they Perceive the World?

  • Agreeable people perceive other people as good-natured, more honest than not, and with good intentions. Seeing others as trustworthy makes it easy to move forward in life.
  • Disagreeable people tend to see other people as potential competitors in dating, business, careers, and other aspects of life. This leads them to a framework of seeing others as competitors and fundamentally selfish.

What Motivates them?

  • Agreeable people revolve around cooperation and harmony in relationships.
  • Disagreeable people are more motivated by getting their needs and want to be met.

How do they Behave differently?

  • Agreeable people are usually compassionate towards others’ needs but not at their own expense, while those lower on Agreeableness can be more critical of themselves- sometimes leading them down a path where they prioritize self-preservation over care for others.
  • Disagreeable people are typically assertive and competitive in pursuit of their goals, even if this leads to disturbing a relationship. They are more direct, blunt, and rude. In extreme cases, they can become aggressive, vicious, manipulative, and dangerous as they put their needs above the welfare of other people at any cost. 

What is the Impact On their Life Outcomes?

  • Agreeable people tend to live more harmonious, easygoing lives. They have solid relationships with others. On the flip side, they can struggle to achieve their goals in a competitive environment and when stepping on their toes is required. Nice guys do finish last. 
  • Disagreeable people are good at negotiating for their own benefit. They are competitive, assertive, and even aggressive in goal pursuit. They do not care if the boat is rocked or if feelings are hurt if the ends justify the means. As a result, they are more successful in attaining their goals. However, low Agreeableness correlates strongly with negative life experiences such as substance abuse and mental illness and the Dark Triad Traits. 
high neuroticism


Individuals with high levels of Neuroticism are often prone to experiencing negative emotions such as anxiety, mood swings, and self-doubt.

Studies have shown that individuals who score high on Neuroticism tend to have lower levels of life satisfaction and may be more prone to developing mental health conditions such as depression or substance abuse.

However, it is essential to note that having some level of Neuroticism is normal and does not necessarily indicate a problem.

Neuroticism Vs. Emotional Stability

  • High Neuroticism individuals tend to be insecure, easily stressed out, worry a lot, and experience frequent mood swings.
  • Emotional Stability individuals are known for their ability to control and regulate their emotions effectively.

How do they Perceive the World? 

  • High Neuroticism people are highly risk-conscious. They are the most likely to notice potential risks in any situation and can be the first to notice when something is fishy. This typically leads to worry, anxiety, and fear that a situation might go wrong.
  • Low Neuroticism, people do not perceive the world from the point of view of risk. Oftentimes, they may overlook potential risks altogether, and when they do, they may even downplay the true extent of the potential risks. 

What Motivates them?

  • Neuroticism’s core motivation is safety and security. Going in the wrong direction produces anxiety, worry, and fear, which motivates the person to manage these emotions by taking action or avoiding action to address perceived risks.
  • Emotional Stability is associated with being even-tempered and calm even in dangerous situations, which helps them respond to life’s challenges.

Behavioral Manifestations

  • Neuroticism tends to manifest as negative emotions such as anxiety, moodiness, and sadness.
  • Emotional Stability, on the other hand, is associated with being calm, relaxed, and easygoing. 

Impact On Life Outcomes

  • High Neuroticism individuals are at a greater risk for mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse. Neuroticism can predict an individual’s likelihood of divorce since they tend to feel worried, anxious, and stressed about situations that arise in relationships. 
  • Emotional Stability is linked with career, social, and overall life satisfaction. People are able to develop an integrated and balanced way of perceiving the problems of life.

How to use The Big 5 Personality Traits Model

Understanding the Big 5 personality traits can provide significant insights into any person’s behavior and preferences.

These traits can help in making important life decisions, developing a better understanding of oneself and others, improving communication skills, and identifying areas for personal growth.

For instance, if someone scores high in Neuroticism, they may need more support during stressful situations. Conversely, those who score low on Agreeableness might find it challenging to work with others.

It is essential to note that while these personality traits are relatively stable over time, people can work towards modifying their behavior to fit different situations better.

What are the Primary Personality Traits?

The Primary Personality Traits are the main traits that make up a personality. The Cardinal Trait, which is the highest trait and the trait that dominates the personality, is the main driver of a person’s thoughts, feelings, perceptions, motivations, and behaviors. 

For example, Oprah Winfrey’s cardinal trait could be sociability. 

The other traits can be complementary or lead to internal conflict where one part of the personality wants to go in one direction, and another wants to go in the opposite direction.  

emotional stability

Personality Development

Personality Development focuses on analyzing how each trait impacts one’s life. People can gain Profound insights into what is working, what is not, and what can be done by unpacking personality.

Can personality change over time?

Personality is consistent and predictable, yet flexible, and can evolve over time. 

As we grow up and mature, we become more responsible, so there is a natural growth in Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. 

What are the benefits of Personality Development?

Personality Development can significantly impact a person’s life through a few minor changes. For example, minor changes in Extroversion and Neuroticism can lead to big jumps in Self-esteem and Confidence. 

How does a personality develop?

Personality naturally develops; however, it can develop much more quickly and effectively with effort. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and many other therapies aim to help people become more self-aware so they can take charge of their lives.

7 Techniques to Develop Your Personality 

Here are 7 methods you can use to begin developing your personality.

  1. Big 5 Personality Test: Take the free Big 5 Assessment to get an idea of your traits.
  2. SWOT Analysis of your Traits and how they impact your life.
  3. Learn about the Big 5 Model and Each Trait
  4. Journaling & Meditating: Reflect and Meditate on how your life is going and where you are headed.
  5. Meaningful Goals: Set goals that give you a higher purpose, a purpose that extends beyond yourself. 
  6. Community: Meet people who are on a Similar Journey
  7. AI Assistants: We created AI Chatbots that can help you on this journey.

All of these are things you can begin doing today solo or in our Trait Master: Personality Development Mastercalls. The Masterclass includes the official Big 5 Test, a Personality Development Journal with all of the Prompts, Coursework, Community, and even a few AI tools.