What Is Enneagram Type 9 Growth?
Enneagram Type 9 growth focuses on the personal development and self-improvement of individuals with this particular personality type, often referred to as the Peacemaker or Mediator.
At their core, Type 9 individuals are known for being easygoing, patient, and supportive with a strong desire to maintain peace and harmony in their lives. They have a natural ability to see multiple perspectives and mediate conflicts among others.
The process of Enneagram Type 9 growth involves overcoming these challenges by cultivating greater self-awareness, embracing necessary conflict situations instead of avoiding them, setting healthy boundaries in relationships, prioritizing one’s own needs alongside those of others’, and tapping into inner motivation for fulfillment.
For example, engaging in regular self-reflection exercises or seeking guidance from a professional coach or mentor can help Type 9s develop stronger self-awareness.
Type 9 individuals also experience periods of stress that offer opportunities for further growth as they move towards the qualities exhibited by Enneagram Type 3 (their integration point).
Overview Of Type 9 Personality And Core Characteristics, Motivations And Fears And Impact On Growth
Enneagram Type 9, also known as the Peacemaker or Mediator, is characterized by their accepting, optimistic, and adaptive nature. These individuals are highly motivated by the need for harmony, connection with others, and avoiding conflict at all costs.
This tendency to accommodate others can sometimes hinder an Enneagram Type 9’s personal growth. When they repress their desires to avoid conflict or confrontation, they may not fully develop or recognize their own capabilities and strengths.
As such, it is essential for Nines to understand the importance of cultivating self-awareness in order to grow personally and professionally.
Conversely, when Type 9 individuals experience growth towards integration (or positive development), they become more assertive about their needs without causing unnecessary friction with those around them.
Levels Of Development For Type 9
Enneagram Type 9 personalities exhibit varying behaviors across nine levels of development, spanning from healthy to unhealthy states. At the healthiest level, Nines excel in self-remembering and are adept at bringing people together to resolve conflicts and foster understanding among one another.
This often manifests through their natural ability to mediate disputes and cultivate a sense of unity within diverse groups.
As Type 9 individuals descend towards less healthy levels of development, they may struggle with self-abandonment and become increasingly focused on fulfilling others’ needs while neglecting their own.
This tendency is particularly evident during periods of stress or anxiety when Nines may lose sight of their true emotions in an attempt to avoid rocking the boat or disturbing harmony around them.
Conversely, reaching higher developmental stages empowers Type 9s to harness the positive qualities associated with the Inner
Flow growth path—an integrative practice that draws inspiration from challenges commonly experienced by Type Sixes such as confronting fears head-on and cultivating clarity in perception.
Chart Of Nine Levels Of Health, Average, And Unhealthy Behaviors For Type 9 WithSpecific Traits And Behaviors Exhibited At Each Level
The chart below presents the nine levels of health, average, and unhealthy behaviors for Enneagram Type 9, outlining specific traits and behaviors exhibited at each level. This comprehensive tool can serve as a guide for Type 9 individuals looking to understand their current state and work towards personal growth.
|1 Healthy||Empathetic, deeply connected to others, and able to balance personal needs with those of others.|
|2 Healthy||Assertive and confident, able to express their opinions and take action when necessary.|
|3 Healthy||Creative and inspired, utilizing their imagination to find innovative solutions to problems.|
|4 Average||Steady and reliable, providing support and stability in their relationships.|
|5 Average||Aware of their own needs and priorities, but may struggle to assert themselves.|
|6 Average||Passive and accommodating, prioritizing harmony over their own desires and opinions.|
|7 Unhealthy||Disengaged and detached, withdrawing from conflict and avoiding difficult situations or conversations.|
|8 Unhealthy||Stubborn and resistant to change, becoming inflexible and unwilling to compromise.|
|9 Unhealthy||Overwhelmed by stress and anxiety, becoming increasingly isolated and unresponsive to others’ needs.|
Identification Of Indicators For Recognizing Growth And Movement Towards Health
To recognize growth and movement towards health for Enneagram Type 9, it’s important to look out for indicators such as increased assertiveness in expressing personal wants and needs, overcoming the tendency to avoid conflict or appease others at all costs, taking time for self-care and reflection on one’s inner thoughts and emotions, and demonstrating a greater sense of autonomy.
Another key indicator is an ability to make decisions without outside influence or pressure from others. These changes are positive signals that suggest Personal Growth is happening along with Psychological And Spiritual Development.
What Are Primary Areas For Personal Growth For Type 9 Individuals?
Type 9 individuals have a natural propensity for accommodating others and avoiding conflict. While this trait can be helpful, it often leads to self-neglect and slothfulness.
Therefore, taking responsibility for their personal growth is crucial for Type 9s. An essential area for growth is self-reflection. Type 9s need to tune in with themselves to identify their desires and needs accurately.
Another critical area for growth is assertiveness. Being able to express themselves authentically while still valuing the opinions of others is a balancing act that type 9s must master.
This may involve stepping out of their comfort zone by setting boundaries, saying “no,” and making decisions confidently without fretting about causing conflict.
Ultimately, personal growth requires effort and discipline—qualities that are not always associated with Type 9’s easygoing nature.
Exploration Of Challenges And Potential Obstacles In Type 9’s Journey Towards Health
In the journey towards growth and health, Type 9 individuals face several challenges and potential obstacles. Nines tend to prioritize the needs of others over their own, often leading to neglecting their personal desires and goals.
Another common issue that Type 9s face is a lack of direction or decisiveness due to an aversion for conflict. They may struggle with making important decisions, especially when it affects multiple people as they seek to accommodate everyone’s wishes.
However, by becoming more aware of these tendencies and actively confronting them, Type 9s can begin overcoming these obstacles on the path towards growth.
Strategies For Self-reflection, Awareness, And Growth For Type 9
Some effective strategies include:
- Regularly set aside time for self – reflection, introspection, and meditation to connect with your inner voice.
- Practice expressing your wants and needs assertively and directly, even when it may be uncomfortable.
- Attend to your physical needs and engage in activities that bring you pleasure and joy.
- Seek the support of a trusted confidant or therapist who can help you navigate challenges on your growth journey.
- Cultivate mindfulness by staying present in the moment and focusing on your breath or physical sensations.
- Take inventory of any limiting beliefs or patterns that hold you back from pursuing your goals.
- Practice being more decisive by identifying what matters most to you, setting goals, and taking action towards achieving them.
By implementing these strategies consistently over time, Enneagram Type 9s can deepen their self-awareness, gain a greater understanding of their motivations and desires, cultivate healthy relationships with others, and achieve personal growth.
How Can Type 9 Use Growth And Stress Points?
Type 9 enneagrams can leverage growth and stress points to achieve psychological and spiritual development. In periods of growth, they can develop qualities like assertiveness, goal orientation, and decisiveness.
Type 9s tend to prioritize others’ needs over their own, but during times of stress, they may repress their feelings or avoid conflicts altogether.
During periods of growth, enneagram type 9s can cultivate a sense of accomplishment by setting achievable goals and taking decisive action towards them. They can also work on asserting themselves in situations where they might typically accommodate or avoid conflict.
By identifying their integration point (Type 3) and disintegration point (Type 6), Type 9 individuals gain valuable insights into how to leverage each point for personal growth effectively.
Type 9’s Integration Point And The Positive Qualities Gained From Integration
Type Nine’s integration point is towards Type Three, which leads to an increase in energy and motivation levels.
This movement helps enhance their self-awareness and allows them to focus on achieving personal goals while maintaining their sense of harmony with the world around them.
By integrating towards Type Three, Type Nines gain qualities such as assertiveness, ambition, and goal orientation that enable them to take charge of their life actively.
For example, a Type Nine who integrates towards Type Three might start by becoming more proactive at work or pursuing new hobbies or interests they previously avoided due to fear of failure or disappointment.
They become confident in expressing themselves assertively and taking risks without compromising relationships’ peace and harmony.
Type 9’s Disintegration Point And Potential Challenges During Disintegration
At their disintegration point towards Type 6 (The Loyalist), Type 9s may experience a loss of internal peace and direction. They become plagued by self-doubt and lose touch with their own ambitions, desires, and emotions.
During this period of stress, Type 9s tend to numb themselves out or go into autopilot mode as a coping mechanism. They may avoid taking action or making decisions altogether in order to maintain the status quo and keep the peace at all costs.
Insights Into Leveraging Integration And Managing Disintegration For Growth And Balance
As Enneagram Type 9 individuals move towards growth, they can leverage their integration point and manage disintegration for optimal balance. The integration point for Type 9 is towards healthy Type Three, characterized by increased self-development, energy, and optimism.
By integrating Type Three qualities such as goal-setting and achievement-oriented behavior, a Nine can develop self-confidence and assertiveness.
On the other hand, in times of stress or disintegration, it’s essential to recognize when Type 9 tendencies turn unhealthy. For instance, Nines can become overly passive or indecisive when stressed or overwhelmed.
Ultimately the key to growth lies in not losing touch with one’s heart center- getting in touch with emotions rather than repressing them is critical for Enneagram Type 9s to achieve personal transformation on both psychological and spiritual levels.
Wings And Their Influence On Type 9’s Growth
Enneagram Type 9 has two wings, 9w8 and 9w1, that provide additional insight into how they express themselves in different situations. When a Type 9 leans towards their One wing, it can help them develop stronger internal values and a more idealistic vision for the world.
They may also become more assertive when standing up for what they believe is right.
Understanding which wing resonates with an individual allows them to focus on developing strengths while managing growth opportunities.
For example, if someone identifies strongly with their One wing (known as “The Idealist”), they may seek out opportunities for personal growth that allow them to embrace structure and take action on causes that align with their ideals.
By exploring both wings of Enneagram Type 9 and working on balancing them out where necessary, individuals can leverage each side’s unique strengths while avoiding any potential pitfalls associated with either extreme.
Examination Of Type 9w1 And Type 9w8
Enneagram Type 9s can have either a wing 8 or a wing 1, which influences their growth journey. The 9w1 subtype tends to be more introverted, idealistic, and perfectionistic than other Type 9 individuals.
They may struggle with indecision and finding their voice in situations that require assertiveness. On the other hand, Enneagram Type 9w8 personalities are more outgoing and confident in expressing themselves.
Understanding the influence of each wing on Enneagram Type 9’s growth path is vital for developing self-awareness and identifying opportunities for personal development.
How Each Wing Impacts Type 9’s Growth And Manifests In Behavior
Nines with a One wing, also known as the “Idealistic Nine,” tend to have more pronounced perfectionist tendencies and a sense of purpose.
They are highly principled individuals who strive for excellence in both personal and professional aspects of life.
On the other hand, Nines with an Eight wing or “Self-Preserving Nine” tend to be more assertive and confident than their peace-loving counterparts.
They demonstrate leadership qualities that occasionally border on aggressiveness or dominance when they feel pushed beyond their limits.
Understanding how each wing manifests within the Type 9 personality is critical because it affects their behavior patterns significantly.
Strategies For Harnessing The Strengths And Managing The Challenges Associated With Each Wing
To effectively harness the strengths and manage challenges associated with each wing, Enneagram Type 9s should consider these strategies:
For Wing 1:
- Practice embracing imperfection and letting go of critical tendencies
- Focus on finding balance between the desire for justice and the need to avoid conflict
- Utilize productive outlets, such as volunteering or activism, to channel strong moral convictions
For Wing 8:
- Find healthy ways to assert boundaries while still prioritizing harmony in relationships
- Lean into natural leadership abilities without dominating others
- Develop self – awareness around power dynamics and actively work towards balancing power in relationships
Regardless of wing type, Enneagram Type 9s should prioritize self-reflection and self-awareness in order to better understand their own behaviors and tendencies.
Additionally, seeking out supportive relationships and practicing effective communication can be helpful in navigating both individual growth and relationship dynamics.
Subtypes And Their Influence On Type 9’s Growth
In Enneagram, Type 9 individuals have three subtypes: self-preservation, social, and one-to-one. Each subtype has a unique influence on the growth path of Type 9s.
Self-preservation Nines tend to be focused on their physical needs and personal comfort. In terms of growth, they may benefit from focusing on taking care of themselves first and being more assertive in pursuing their goals.
Social Nines are more concerned with fitting in and maintaining relationships with others. For them, growth involves acknowledging their own needs and boundaries while also prioritizing healthy connections with others.
Finally, one-to-one Nines prioritize deep emotional connections with a select few individuals.
Understanding these subtypes can help Type 9s identify areas for potential growth based on their unique personality tendencies.
Discussion Of How Each Subtype Influences Type 9’s Growth Path And Behaviors
Enneagram Type Nine has three subtypes that can significantly impact their growth trajectory and behavior. The Self-preservation subtype, for example, focuses on physical comfort and security, seeking to create a sense of stability in their environment.
This can lead to behaviors such as hoarding resources or avoiding risk-taking.
Finally, the Sexual (or One-to-One) subtype emphasizes developing deep emotional connections with others, seeking intense relationships and experiences while also struggling with feelings of abandonment or rejection.
Each subtype carries its unique set of challenges and strengths that influence how Type Nines approach personal growth actively.
Understanding the nuances of Enneagram Type Nine’s subtypes is essential to unlocking their full potential for psychological and spiritual growth effectively.
Tips For Embracing The Strengths And Navigating The Potential Pitfalls Of Each Subtype
- Embrace the strengths of your subtype: The Enneagram Type 9 has three subtypes – self-preservation, social and one-to-one. Understanding your subtype can help you recognize your unique strengths and areas for growth.
- Be aware of potential pitfalls: Each subtype comes with its own set of challenges. For example, self-preservation types may struggle with hoarding or being overly focused on their physical comfort, while social types may struggle with fitting in or pleasing others at the expense of their own needs.
- Practice self-reflection: Take time to reflect on your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This can help you identify patterns that are not serving you and lead to personal growth.
- Set boundaries: As a Type 9, it can be easy to prioritize others’ needs over your own. Setting healthy boundaries is essential for maintaining balance in your relationships and avoiding burnout.
- Seek out support: Don’t be afraid to seek out support from loved ones or a professional when needed. Having a supportive network can help you navigate challenges and stay on track with personal growth.
- Practice mindfulness: Mindfulness practices such as meditation or yoga can help Type 9 individuals stay present in the moment and tune into their emotions and needs.
- Cultivate assertiveness: While Type 9s tend to avoid conflict, learning to assert oneself can be a powerful tool for personal growth and achieving goals.
- Focus on internal motivation: Avoid getting caught up in external validation or approval-seeking behavior and instead focus on internal motivation and what brings you purpose and fulfillment.
- Remember that change is possible: Recognize that even if change feels difficult or uncomfortable at first, it is possible to grow beyond limiting patterns of behavior associated with your Enneagram Type 9 personality traits.
These tips can empower Enneagram Type 9 individuals to embrace their strengths while navigating potential pitfalls associated with their subtype.
By practicing self-reflection, setting boundaries, seeking support, and cultivating assertiveness and internal motivation, Type 9s can achieve greater personal growth and fulfillment.
Relationship Dynamics For Type 9
Type 9 individuals bring a sense of peace and harmony to their relationships, prioritizing the needs and desires of their partner. However, this tendency to accommodate can lead to a lack of assertiveness and difficulty expressing their own opinions and desires.
To foster healthy relationship dynamics, it is crucial for Type 9 individuals to practice self-awareness and assertiveness. This involves recognizing one’s own needs and emotions while also being able to communicate them effectively with partners.
It is also important for Type 9s to seek out partners who value open communication and are willing to work together towards mutual understanding.
One potential challenge that may arise for Type 9 individuals in relationships is emotional reactivity caused by the energy of Sloth when they feel overwhelmed or overstimulated.
This may cause them to become reactive as opposed to responsive when faced with stressors within the relationship.
Communication Style And Preferences In Relationships
Enneagram Type 9 individuals are empathetic listeners who value harmony and the preservation of relationships. They tend to communicate in a diplomatic, non-judgmental manner and avoid confrontation at all costs, often accommodating others’ needs and desires over their own.
When communicating with Type 9s, it’s important to create a peaceful environment that encourages them to speak up honestly without fear of judgment or reprimand. It’s also helpful to give them space and time for reflection before making any major decisions.
In relationships, they thrive on mutual respect, trustworthiness, humor, stability, and practicality.
Compatible And Challenging Enneagram Types For Type 9
When exploring compatibility and challenges in relationships for Enneagram Type 9 individuals, it is essential to understand the unique dynamics that may arise with different Enneagram types.
|Compatible Enneagram Types||Challenging Enneagram Types|
|Type 2: The Helper||Type 1: The Perfectionist|
|Type 6: The Loyalist||Type 3: The Achiever|
|Type 9: The Peacemaker||Type 4: The Individualist|
|Type 3: The Achiever||Type 5: The Investigator|
|Type 5: The Investigator||Type 6: The Loyalist|
|Type 7: The Enthusiast||Type 7: The Enthusiast|
|Type 1: The Perfectionist||Type 8: The Challenger|
|Type 4: The Individualist||Type 9: The Peacemaker|
|Type 8: The Challenger||Type 2: The Helper|
It is important to note that compatibility may vary based on the level of health and personal growth of each individual within the relationship. Furthermore, one should not entirely rely on the information provided above when choosing a partner or friend.
Rather, it should be used as a guide to understanding and navigating potential relationship dynamics, ultimately fostering harmony and growth for Type 9 individuals.
Strategies For Fostering Healthy And Harmonious Relationships
Type 9s can develop healthier and more harmonious relationships by implementing the following strategies:
- Practice assertiveness: Type 9s should learn to express their needs, feelings, and opinions confidently without fear of upsetting others.
- Set boundaries: It’s essential for Type 9s to identify their limits and communicate them effectively to others.
- Foster open communication: Type 9s can promote healthy and honest interactions with their loved ones by actively listening, using “I” statements instead of accusations, and asking for clarification when needed.
- Prioritize self-care: By prioritizing their own well-being, Type 9s can cultivate a stronger sense of self-love and individuality that helps them better contribute to relationships.
- Embrace constructive conflict: Encountering disagreements does not have to be a negative experience if handled properly; by viewing conflicts as opportunities for growth rather than something to avoid entirely, Type 9s can strengthen relationships while remaining true to themselves.
- Practice active presence: One way that Type 9s can foster deeper connections is by practicing being fully present during conversations or shared experiences.
- Learn about partner Enneagram types: By understanding the Enneagram type of their partner or loved ones, Type 9s can gain valuable insights into how those individuals communicate, think, and perceive the world around them.
Implementing these strategies will help Type 9 individuals reach a new level of personal growth while fostering healthy, fulfilling relationships with those around them.
Type 9 In Various Aspects Of Life
Enneagram Type 9 individuals approach different aspects of life with a desire for peace and harmony. In the workplace, they are known for their ability to mediate and bring people together.
They also tend to be hardworking and value cooperation over competition.
As friends, Type 9s are loyal and easygoing, often able to get along with a variety of personality types. They excel at fostering meaningful connections and maintaining harmonious relationships.
In romantic relationships, Enneagram Type 9 individuals have a tendency towards accommodating behavior which can sometimes lead them to neglect their own needs in favor of others’.
It can be helpful for nines to recognize the importance of expressing their wants and desires in order to maintain balance in the relationship.
Type 9 In The Workplace: Characteristics, Strengths, And Areas For Growth
Type 9 individuals are valuable members of the workplace due to their accepting, trusting, stable, creative, optimistic, and supportive nature. They work well in teams and tend to be effective mediators when conflicts arise.
To achieve growth in the workplace as a Type 9 individual, it is important to learn how to balance the heart center and manage reactivity. This involves learning how to identify personal needs and boundaries while also asserting them in an appropriate manner.
Overall, Type 9s have many strengths that make them valuable contributors in any workplace.
Type 9 As A Friend: Qualities, Dynamics, And Fostering Meaningful Connections
Enneagram Type 9s make loyal and accepting friends who value harmony and emotional balance in their relationships. They are known for being adaptable, optimistic, and easygoing in their behavior towards others.
However, it’s essential to understand that Type 9s might need space and quiet reflection time to recharge emotionally. Being patient with them during these periods is crucial for maintaining a healthy friendship.
Fostering meaningful connections with Type 9s involves appreciating their unique perspective on life while valuing their sense of right and wrong.
It’s important not to overlook any frustrations you may have while dealing with a Nine’s tendency towards procrastination or complacency.
Type 9 In Romantic Relationships: Dating Tendencies, Strengths, And Challenges
Enneagram Type 9 individuals tend to value harmony and connection in their romantic relationships. They often prioritize the needs and wants of their partner, sometimes at the expense of their own desires.
However, this can lead them to avoid conflict and potentially sacrifice their own happiness in the relationship.
In a relationship, Type 9’s strengths include adaptability, empathy, and open-mindedness. They strive for compromise and work towards building a peaceful environment within the partnership.
However, they may struggle with making decisions or voicing their own opinions if it risks disturbing inner peace.
Despite its challenges, growth is attainable for Enneagram Type 9s who wish to cultivate healthy romantic relationships through self-reflection and personal development techniques such as mindfulness or therapy sessions that address internal conflicts or past traumas that might be affecting one’s capacity for intimacy which can help promote more assertive behaviour without causing unnecessary conflict and preserve ones connection with oneself.
To get insight into your relationship dynamics, chat with RelationSage AI.
Type 9 As A Parent: Parenting Style, Strengths, And Areas For Growth
Parents who are Enneagram Type 9s often bring a sense of calmness, empathy, and acceptance to their parenting style. They strive to create peaceful and harmonious family dynamics by accommodating their children’s needs and avoiding conflicts.
However, Type 9 parents may need to work on balancing their desire for harmony with the need to set boundaries and structure in their family life. They may also struggle with making difficult decisions or addressing challenging issues due to their fear of causing conflict or hurting others’ feelings.
Overall, Enneagram Type 9 parents can create a nurturing home environment that fosters emotional stability while also working towards personal growth through self-reflection and boundary setting practices.
Practicing Self-Care And Self-Compassion For Type 9
For Enneagram Type 9 individuals, practicing self-care and self-compassion is a necessary part of their growth journey. This involves recognizing the importance of taking time for themselves to recharge and pursue their passions in life.
Part of self-care practice for Type 9 includes letting others take care of them as well. They tend to give so much to those around them that they forget to take care of themselves.
Embracing healthy traits associated with their growth numbers is another crucial aspect of practicing self-care for Type 9s.
Importance Of Self-care And Self-compassion In Type 9’s Growth Journey
Self-care and self-compassion are essential factors in the growth journey of Type 9 individuals. As peacemakers, Type 9s tend to prioritize the needs and preferences of others over their own. often leading to neglecting their own desires and well-being.
Moreover, cultivating self-compassion is critical as it helps Type 9 individuals accept themselves unconditionally while recognizing their imperfections without judgment.
This allows them to develop a deeper sense of compassion towards themselves and others while gaining greater emotional resilience during times of stress or conflict.
Strategies And Techniques For Cultivating Self-acceptance, Self-care, And Stress Management
Here are some actionable strategies and techniques for Enneagram Type 9 individuals to cultivate self-acceptance, self-care, and stress management:
- Practice mindfulness: Mindfulness meditation can help Type 9s become more present in the moment and aware of their thoughts and feelings.
- Engage in physical activity: Regular exercise releases endorphins, which can improve mood and reduce stress levels.
- Set boundaries: Type 9s tend to put others’ needs before their own, so it’s important to establish boundaries that allow time for self-care activities.
- Identify your passions: Pursuing activities that bring joy and fulfillment can help Type 9s find purpose and direction in life.
- Seek support from loved ones: Building a supportive network of family and friends who understand and appreciate your strengths can be beneficial for personal growth.
- Embrace imperfection: Type 9s’ desire for harmony can lead to perfectionism, which can be a hindrance to growth. Learning to accept imperfections without judgment is essential for cultivating self-acceptance.
- Take breaks when needed: It’s okay to step back when feeling overwhelmed or overstimulated, whether that means taking a mental health day or simply unplugging from technology for a while.
- Personality Development: Discover how personality impact every part of life and learn how to leverage the positives and navigate the negatives. Check out our: Trait Masters Personality Development Masterclass.
Remember that personal growth is a journey, not a destination. By employing these strategies consistently over time, Enneagram Type 9s can unlock their full potential and lead fulfilling lives with greater self-awareness, acceptance, and purpose.
Encouragement For Type 9 Individuals To Embrace Imperfections And Find Balance In Their Lives
For Type 9 individuals, finding balance involves recognizing and embracing their imperfections. While Type 9s have a natural inclination to avoid conflict and prioritize harmony, this can sometimes come at the cost of asserting their own needs and desires.
To find balance, it is important for them to acknowledge that it’s okay to make mistakes or experience discomfort in order to grow.
One way for Type 9 individuals to find balance is by engaging in activities that allow them to explore their authentic selves, foster self-awareness, and build confidence.
This might include carving out time for hobbies or interests they’re passionate about or seeking opportunities that challenge them professionally or personally.